In zoology, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds and fish, including lampreys, are included within the informal group of ‘vertebrates‘. These animals have a spinal column, whereas invertebrates do not.
The current German Red Lists of vertebrates from 2009 ff. assess a total of 522 species and subspecies. This represents a mere 0.7% of all species and subspecies of animals, plants and fungi known to occur in Germany.